1.Louis XI of France and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain were examples of strong   _________   in Renaissance Europe who consolidated power and aided prosperous towns. 

2.Martin Luther rejected the traditional Christian idea that salvation could be earned by performing   _______   and insisted that only  _______   could save sinful humans.

3.The Lutheran Reformation shared with northern humanism its criticism of __________  and its interest in translating ______________ .

4.The values of the “Protestant ethic,” embodied in the lives of Calvinist city-dwellers, include the belief in  __________  and _________ , among other principles.

5.The skeptical humanist Michel de Montaigne invented the literary form known as the  __________   .

6. Among the types or genres of drama in which Shakespeare excelled were   ______,  ________   , and  _________   .

7. The Catholic Church’s effort to oppose Lutheran Protestantism and roll back its advances was termed the   _______________   .

8. The immensely successful Venetian Renaissance painter known as _________  was famed for use of vibrant colors.

 

Multiple choice

1. Which of these was an important factor in the Low Countries’ “commercial revolution?”

a. accumulation of wealth in the hands of a merchant class 

b. King Henry VIII’s split with the Catholic church

c. destruction of churches and religious art during peasant revolts

d. the invention of linear and atmospheric perspective

 

2. When Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses, he was standing in what city?

a. Wittenberg 

b. Rome

c. Florence

d. London

 

3. Which of these was built by Francis I of France to accommodate his court in a fashionable Italian-like style?

a. Villa Rotonda, Vicenza

b. the Globe Theater

c. Teatro Olimpico

d. chateau at Chambord

 

4. Which picture contains a disguised symbol of the theme sic transit gloria mundi, or “thus passes worldly glory,” a reminder that no one escapes death?

a. Holbein’s ^ The Ambassadors *

b. Grünewald’s The Crucifixion

c. Masaccio’s The Tribute Money

d. Pontormo’s Deposition

5. Which of these Northern Renaissance artists was noted for his service to the English King Henry VIII and his portraits of royal wives and diplomats?

a. Pieter Bruegel 

b. Albrecht Dürer

c. Matthias Grünewald

d. Hans Holbein

6. The term madrigal would most likely be used in a discussion of

a. Palestrina’s harmonies

b. the Lutheran Bible

c. Palladio’s classical designs

d. music in Renaissance England

7. What statement best describes the effect of Martin Luther’s teachings?

a. strengthened the Catholic Church’s influence in northern Europe

b. gave the individual believer more responsibility than the priest 

c. brought about a new respect for the arts in Christianity

d. emphasized the role of good works in achieving salvation

8. Which of these values are associated with the “Protestant ethic?”

a. pursuit of individual freedom and choice

b. preservation of traditional Church rituals

c. generous patronage of art in the Church

d. self-sacrifice and the virtues of work

9. Which of these might most reasonably be cited as a cause of the Reformation?

a. Germans’ resentment against the Church’s corruption 

b. interest in reform of monasteries and convents 

c. the discovery of territories in the New World

d. the poverty of Northern European peasants

10. Martin Luther’s first attack on the Roman Catholic Church centered on what issue?

a. the reliability of official Bible translations

b. Luther’s desire to be elected a Church cardinal

c. the sale of indulgences to raise funds for the Church 

d. Church doctrine forbidding priests to marry

11. Which of these terms is most closely associated with the religious ideas of John Calvin?

a. utopianism

b. indulgences

c. evangelical humanism

d. predestination 

12. What northern Renaissance writer’s greatest work is devoted to a satirical exposure of religious corruption and prejudice?

a. Desiderius Erasmus 

b. Pico della Mirandola

c. Machiavelli

d. Thomas More

13. What northern Renaissance humanist writer expressed his philosophical skepticism in the form of personal essays??

a. William Shakespeare

b. Thomas More

c. Desiderius Erasmus 

d. Michel de Montaigne

14 Thomas More was author of what Renaissance humanist work?

a. Praise of Folly

b. The Prince

c. ^ The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy

d. Utopia

15. What two figures, both important figures in northern Renaissance thought, engaged in a spirited debate over the question of human sinfulness and the freedom of will?

a. Ben Jonson and Christopher Marlowe

b. Francis I and Ferdinand of Spain

c. Desiderius Erasmus and Martin Luther

d. Henry VIII and Pope Julius II

16. Which of these works is the best example of the vivid and precise realism of Northern Renaissance painting?

a. Jan van Eyck’s ^ Arnolfini’s Wedding 

b. Bruegel The Hunters’ Return

c. Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck

d. Tintoretto’s Last Supper

17. Which of these Northern Renaissance artists was most actively engaged in the religious debates of the Reformation and the most influenced by Italian humanism?

a. Pieter Bruegel 

b. Albrecht Dürer 

c. Matthias Grünewald

d. Hans Holbein

18. Which of these Northern Renaissance paintings is part of an altarpiece—a folding wooden cabinet decorated with painting?

a. Van Eyck’s ^ Marriage of Arnolfini

b. Dürer’s Self-Portrait

c. Bruegel’s Hunters in the Snow

d. Grünewald’s Crucifixion

19. Bruegel’s The Hunters’ Return shows the painter’s interest in what subject or method?

a. applying the techniques of Florentine fresco

b. the dramatic conflict between good and evil

c. the humble life of villagers and peasants 

d. reconciling Greco-Roman and Christian ideas

20. Dürer’s Knight, Death, and the Devil illustrates the artist’s

a. desire to capture sweeping landscapes

b. skill in the medium of line engraving 

c. indifference to religious themes and ideas

d. revolutionary advances in oil painting

21. Which of these was important in spreading Martin Luther’s religious ideas?

a. Morley’s ^ Triumphes of Oriana

b. the telescope

c. Shakespeare’s Hamlet

d. the printing press

22. Which would one most likely hear at a Lutheran church service? 

a. the works of Josquin des Prez

b. a madrigal sung in four parts

c. a congregation singing a hymn in German

d. a motet with a Latin text

23. Which of these Renaissance works would most likely have been encountered at the court of Elizabeth I?

a. Parmigianino’s ^ Madonna with the Long Neck

b. Palestrina’s Mass of Pope Marcellus

c. a theater set designed by Palladio

d. performance of a motet by William Byrd

24. How is the madrigal is best defined? 

a. a popular song in several voices

b. the musical resting point that provides resolution

c. a form of improvisational theater originating in Italy

d. a hymn sung at Lutheran church services

 

25. Which of these works was dedicated to England’s Elizabeth I?

a. Morley’s ^ Triumphes of Oriana 

b. Luther’s A Mighty Fortress is Our God

c. Shakespeare’s Hamlet

d. Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion

26. Which of these composers is most closely associated with the conservative Catholic reaction against the Reformation?

a. William Byrd

b. Giovanni Gabrieli

c. Giovanni da Palestrina 

d. Thomas Morley

27. Which of these actions came as a result of the Counter-reformation?

a. Columbus’ voyages to the New World

b. innovations in theatrical set design

c. censorship of artistic subjects 

d. Francis I’s support of Reformation ideas

 

28. In what phenomenon did the Florentine Camerata play an important role? 

a. the development of a new theatrical art called opera

b. the evolution of oil painting as a medium of secular art

c. the reform of sacred music in Rome and Venice

d. the stylistic innovations of mannerism

29. Which term is associated with the musical works of Giovanni Gabrieli, composed for performance in St. Mark’s of Venice?

a. operatic

b. polychoral 

c. baroque

d. mannerist

30. Which of these Renaissance works is best categorized as mannerist–the conscious manipulation and distortion of high Renaissance techniques?

a. Dürer’s Self-Portrait

b. Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck

c. Palladio’s Villa Rotonda

d. Bruegel’s The Hunters’ Return

31. Which statement best describes the music of Palestrina?

a. directly appealed to emotions of worshippers

b. pioneered the use of multiple choirs

c. rejected intermingling of sacred and secular music 

d. attempted to involve church congregations in musical worship

32. Which of these artists was author of the Four Books of Architecture, an important influence on later architectural classicism?

a. Giorgione

b. Andrea Palladio 

c. Jacopo Tintoretto

d. Giovanni da Palestrina

33. The Teatro Olimpico illustrates the influence of what Renaissance technique, borrowed from painting?

a. commedia dell’arte

b. linear perspective

c. blank verse

d. chiaroscuro

34. Which statement best describes Titian’s late Renaissance masterpiece Bacchus and Ariadne, painting to decorate a duke’s country home in Ferrara, Italy?

a. follows Counter-Reformation’s demands in its choice of a traditional Christian subject

b. creates a quiet, dream-like mood by the use of a country setting

c. manipulates the rules of linear perspective to create an off-center focal point

d. creates a lively pag

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