Subject Music

Topic     Native American Music in California and Arizona

Type      Research paper

Level     High School

Style      MLA

Sources                7

Language             English(U.S.)


First, the paper needs to be related to the course, so be sure to write about music we will study that is somewhat interesting to you. If you are unfamiliar with any of the musical genres, Google or YouTube them and see what you find! Second, find an ethnomusicological theme that is possibly related to your discipline or is also interesting to you. Sometimes writing on a topic you do not like will give you a new appreciation for it but for many people, picking a less than enjoyable topic usually results in frustration. You should enjoy the process of research %u0432%u0402%u201C hopefully you will learn something valuable in some way.

Check out the list of acceptable musical genres to research and then continue on to ethnomusicological themes. Refer to a separate document regarding the research paper format.



ACCEPTABLE MUSICAL GENRES OR TRADITIONS FOR THE RESEARCH PAPER Here is a list of ACCEPTABLE music genres or traditions that MUS309 students may write about. Take note that the music listed here is also music that you must see LIVE. Concert report forms may be filled out and submitted as well for points.

Banda Blues (strictly blues; no jazz, pop, R & B, or anything considered %u0432%u0402%u045Acommercial%u0432%u0402%u045C) Cajun/Zydeco Country (trad or modern) Dixieland German Irish Latin Jazz Mariachi Native American music New Orleans Brass Band Norte%u0413±o/Tex-Mex Old-timey/Bluegrass Ragtime Salsa Spiritual/Gospel Taiko Traditional African music Traditional Anglo American Folk Music



Ethnomusicology Research Themes

After you have determined what music you want to focus on, apply one or more of these themes to this music.

How do natives or insiders to the tradition discuss the music %u0432%u0402%u201C what terminology is used or what are their musical concepts

How do people (culture) experience music %u0432%u0402%u201C what is the connection between music and the senses

Music and its affects on physical behavior

The culture of musicians

The process of learning/teaching music

Compositional techniques %u0432%u0402%u201C how people create music

Lyric analysis %u0432%u0402%u201C messages in music

Functions and purpose of music

Music as a symbol

The aesthetics of music %u0432%u0402%u201C good and bad music

The role of music in the development of culture

Musical change and cultural change

Reflexivity %u0432%u0402%u201C how do we express ourselves %u0432%u0402%u201C is music a reflection of ourselves or do we reflect ourselves onto the music

Ethics and values associated with music

Music in transition/musical change, as affected by contemporary life

Performance analysis


Religion and music

Music and its affects on emotion; music that puts people into an altered state

The economics of music

The importance of patrons in music and their affects on music creation

Musical icons %u0432%u0402%u201C the music itself or the musician

The affects of music on other aspects of life: fashion, food, etc.

The relationship between music and how a society or culture is socially organized

Musical genres and subgenres

Musical innovators %u0432%u0402%u201C important musicians to a tradition or genre

Urban and popular music vs. rural/folk/traditional/roots music

Music and gender

Music and its role in a historical period

Ethnicity/Race and music

Music and media

Music and politics

Music in institutions

Music and migration

Music and identity

Music in the diaspora

Music and authenticity


Music of minorities

Music and globalization

Music and nationalism %u0432%u0402%u201C patriotic music

Music and tourism

Music and war/violence/conflict

Medical ethnomusicology, i.e. music and HIV/AIDS

Music therapy

Music of subcultures

Music and technology, Internet, etc.

Music and dance

Preservation of music/archiving

Music and universals


Transcription/notation of music


The abstract text begins here. It should be double-spaced, using the Times or Times New Roman 12-point font. An abstract gives a summary of the paper, presents a thesis or argument, and tells how you conducted the research. It only needs to be a page or two and may count as part of the ten pages. Be sure to number your pages starting with this page, with the numbers centered at the bottom of the page.

Next section is the Introduction %u0432%u0402%u201C start it on a new page and be sure to include the heading.


INTRODUCTION Start this section on a new page and include the heading. The introduction can be a more detailed version of your abstract. In other words, develop your abstract here. Provide a clear thesis or present an argument that you will discuss. Is there a connection between you, your culture, and the music you will be writing about? How will your research paper contribute to the academic world? Tell the reader why your work is important. The next section is the Review of Literature %u0432%u0402%u201C be sure to have a heading and start it on a new page.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE Start this section on a new page and include the heading. In this section, discuss a minimum of five scholarly sources you are using for your research. These scholarly sources must come from academic books and/or peerreviewed journal articles. To write this section of your paper you must read or skim the source and give a brief synopsis of what it is about in paragraph form. Be sure that you mention the title and author of the source. When you first mention the source, the author%u0432%u0402%u2122s name or title will have the year of publication in parentheses. Also, be sure to include page numbers whenever you are quoting from the source in this section and in any part of the research paper. You can devote at least a paragraph or more for each source. The next section is the history section %u0432%u0402%u201C include a heading and start it on a new page.


HISTORY Be sure this starts on a new page and has a heading. This section focuses on the history of the music and culture you are studying. In this section be sure to include the names of individuals or groups who are important to the development of the music. Avoid just listing these VIPs %u0432%u0402%u201C tell the reader why the person or group is important to the music. A timeline of events may be helpful. Additionally, in your discussion of history you should reference a minimum of one primary source and a minimum of one tertiary source. Primary sources may include recorded interviews (conducted by the author or others), recordings, performances, autobiographies, or diaries. Tertiary sources include reference encyclopedia or dictionary entries. The next section you will discuss an interview you will conduct %u0432%u0402%u201C it should have a heading and start on a new page.


INTERVIEW Be sure this has a heading and is on a new page. INTERVIEW one individual affiliated with the music you are studying. This person must be someone who is a musician and actively participates or has participated in the music you are researching. The Interviewee should not simply be a fan or collector of the music, although students are welcome to interview such individuals for additional information. Again: THE MAIN INTERVIEWEE MUST CURRENTLY OR IN THE PAST BEEN A MUSICIAN ASSOCIATED WITH THE MUSIC YOU ARE RESEARCHING. In the section, give some background about the person AND include quotes from the interview. You may want to ask if the person consents to an audio or video recording (see consent form). ANYONE who you interview must sign the consent form %u0432%u0402%u201C this is to protect the interviewee as well as you as the interviewer. WRITE THIS SECTION IN PARAGRAPH FORM! Avoid dropping in Q & A or an entire transcription of the interview. The next section is your analysis section where you will discuss some ethnomusicological theme or themes. Be sure the heading of this section reflects what your analysis is about and that it starts on a new page.


ETHNOMUSICOLOGICAL THEME(S) It is important that you start this section on a new page and have a heading of your choice that reflects your analysis. The author should attempt to discuss and examine a specific ethnomusicological theme as applied to the chosen topic of study. More than one theme may be analyzed but be sure to have a new heading for each theme. If you do have more than one ethnomusicological theme, keep the text continuous, without starting each new theme on a new page. Once finished with your analysis or analyses, to end your paper, start your conclusion on a new page and be sure to have a heading.


CONCLUSION Remember to have a heading and start this section on a new page. This summarizes what you had initially theorized, what you have learned, any new revelations you have discovered by conducting the research, and so forth. You may include your own perspectives about what you have studied or provide commentary on any aspect of the music or culture.



References should be on a new page and include a heading. List all sources you have used and your interview source here. If you referred to websites, album liner notes, videos, etc. be sure EVERYTHING is listed, as Turnitin will pick up on ALL possible sources. If it finds text matching a source that is not listed in your references, it could be considered plagiarism. LIST ALL SOURCES in alphabetical order. Refer to the Chicago Manual of Style for formatting (other formats are acceptable BUT BE CONSISTENT). Below are some examples (not a reflection of the title of this sample paper, nor all required sources). Attaway, William. 1957. Calypso Song Book. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Beana, Christian. 1999. Personal interview with the author, January 18.

%u0432%u0402%u045ABringing Trinidad to Los Angeles.%u0432%u0402%u045C 1971. Los Angeles Sentinel, JULY 22, SECTION B2A.

Childers, Alonzo (Bob). 1962. %u0432%u0402%u045AOil Drums on LP Record.%u0432%u0402%u045C San Gabriel Valley Daily Tribune. Sunday Tribune Showtime Section, p. 2, March 11.

Cohen, Sara. 1994. %u0432%u0402%u045AIdentity, Place and the %u0432%u0402˜Liverpool Sound%u0432%u0402%u2122.%u0432%u0402%u045C In Ethnicity, Identity and Music: The Musical Construction of Place, ed. Martin Stokes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 122-40.

De la Bastide, Andrew Pan. 1999. Phone interview with author, April 7.

Dudley, Shannon. 1996. E-mail ***

Neuenfeldt, Karl Wm. 1991. %u0432%u0402%u045ASun, Sea, Sex, and Se%u0413±oritas: %u0432%u0402˜Shorthand%u0432%u0402%u2122 Images of Ethnicity, Ethos, and Gender in Country Songs Set in the Circum-Caribbean.%u0432%u0402%u045C Popular Music and Society 15(2): 1-21.


Additional information:

%u0432%u0402%u045E USE THE HEADINGS, as shown in this sample.

%u0432%u0402%u045E Make sure you use the Times or Times New Roman 12-point font.

%u0432%u0402%u045E Double-space all EXCEPT: captions, footnotes and bibliography entries of more than one line, (double space between footnotes and bibliography entries), and quotes that are more than 4 lines.

%u0432%u0402%u045E Margins: Left is 1 1/2 inches, top, right, and bottom 1 inch wide.

%u0432%u0402%u045E Please be consistent with your formatting to avoid losing points

%u0432%u0402%u045E Footnotes, endnotes, graphs, charts, photos with captions are not required unless the author feels that these would be useful. Including any of these will not automatically grant extra points or a higher grade

%u0432%u0402%u045E Papers that are purely based on personal experience, without any research into other academic sources, tend to be graded lower than papers that clearly show the author has conducted research, collected information, and have taken time to critically analyze all of the information.



PLAGIARIZED PAPERS = %u0432%u0402%u045AF%u0432%u0402%u045C in the course!!!


Research Paper Grading Rubric Instructions: Use this rubric as a guide to understanding how the paper is graded. Points are deducted for missing any of the information below, incorrect formatting, incomplete papers, and overall bad writing (spelling, grammar, typos, punctuation). Use tools on your computer to check you paper and have at least one person read it for errors. You may submit individual paper parts for feedback on Turnitin/Moodle by a deadline to earn extra credit points. These due dates can be found on Moodle. COVER PAGE ___Correct format

___Interesting concise title that fits the subject of the paper

ABSTRACT ___ Correct format

___Clearly tells the reader what the paper is about, but without going into lengthy details

___Page number 1 with correct font begins with the abstract

INTRODUCTION ___ Proper heading is given and on a new page

___Section begins on a new page and is page numbers continue until the end of the paper

___ Section develops the abstract; more details about what the paper is about

___A strong thesis or argument to be proven should also be stated

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ___A minimum of 5 scholarly sources (academic books and peer-reviewed journal articles) are listed and summarized

___This section must be written in paragraph form


___Anybody important to the music is discussed IN DETAIL (not just listed)

___Info is given in a type of timeline that shows music or cultural change (if any)

___At least one primary source and one tertiary source is referenced in this section



INTERVIEW ___Introduce the Interviewee by including his or her bio

___ Discuss why this person is important to your research

___Be sure to share important quotes from the interview

___Discuss Interviewee%u0432%u0402%u2122s knowledge of the musical genre discussed in your paper

___Include closing remarks about the interview

ETHNOMUSICOLOGICAL THEME ___Clearly states the ethnomusicological theme(s) and critically analyzes the themes, as applied to the topic

CONCLUSION ___Concisely summarizes the research paper, including the initial thesis

___Discussion of revelations and new information unknown previously to the author

___Author states why this research is important or useful to the study of American music

___Section shows the impact of the research to the author%u0432%u0402%u2122s understanding of one%u0432%u0402%u2122s self

___Additional comments on the importance of music to author%u0432%u0402%u2122s discipline and humanity

REFERENCES ___ Each source discussed in the Review of Literature section should be listed here

___Every interview should also be listed here

___Any additional sources should be listed

___Correct and consistent formatting should be used here

___Page numbers should end on last page

Spacing Double

Pages    7
Subject Nursing

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