L H Erik Erikson has made a large impact in the growth of human development.  The nine stages of development theories changed the course of how theorists saw the development of personalities and growth of individuals continue throughout there lives. He shows this with the “The Nine Stages of Psychosocial Development” by Erikson displaying stages of ages, developmental periods, characteristics of stages and favored outcomes. This development comes from individuals who have, as he stated “Remember that conflict and tension are sources of growth, strength and commitment” (Erikson and Erikson, 1997).

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An example of this is by a senior citizen, who is recently placed into a nursing home by family members because of the inability to care for her due to her severe medical issues. Once she was placed into the facility, within one year, her oldest daughter suddenly passes away. This senior citizen is now faced with several challenges, does she still maintain the will to live after the loss of her child? Does she continue to move forward with her life despite her physical and medical challenges.

 

She meets these challenges according to Erikson in the ninth stage of “Hope and Faith vs. despair”. Despite the conflict she may feel, she continues to move forward with life after the loss of her daughter. She is “facing a new sense of self over her failing body” and has begun a “new sense of wisdom and transcendence”. Because of these changes she has faced in the last stage of her life, this does not mean she does not continue to grow as a human being. She has had to make adjustments thourgh her adversity and due to her strength and commitment to life she contiues to grow and discover more things about herself and who she has become.

 

The support she will need is contingent on how open and receptive she can or will be. Being supportive of her mental health by contacting a grief counselor to sort through some of the feelings she may experience or brushing her hair and discussing the”good times” of her daughter being alive. This approach may appear to be simple, however it can be very effective. “Self healing personalities often contain elements of the mentally healthy orientations involving efficacy and commitment, described by humanistic and clinical psychologists.”

 

Human development/ Thomas L. Crandell and Corinne Haines Crandall, James W Vander Zaden-10th ed.

 

Handbook of Health Psychology and Aging Aldwin, Carolyn M. Park, Crystal L. Spiro, Avron  p.169

 

Respond to this discussion with references and 150 words …Review your peers’ posts and respond to one, following the guidelines from your instructor in the Faculty Expectations. Support the assumption of theory by providing additional information that relates to the chosen theory and the individual or

 

group’s behavior.

 

 

2nd Discussion

Based on our text, two cognitive changes that take place in middle adulthood are fluid and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence is defined as the ability to make original adaptations in novel situations and crystallized intelligence as the abilities gained from education, experience and acculturation (Crandell, Crandell, Zanden, 2012; Cantell, 1943; Cantell, 1987).  Changes in fluid intelligence (ability) can negatively affect one’s work relationships. For example, fluid intelligence revolves around making keen decisions and applying critical thinking skills, all of which are not common. As we age, these skills tend to decline, making task harder than normal.  It makes it harder for individuals to process and analyze information. Furthermore, the declination of fluid intelligence can have an adverse affect on family relationships. For example, we look to our parents and in some cases, grandparents to make important decisions for us as children, teenagers and young adults.  In reflection of the information provided in the text, I agree that deliberate practice plays a key role in maintaining a high level of brain functioning (Crendell, Crandell, Zanden, 2012).

 

In comparison, crystallized intelligence has a more positive effect on work and family relationships. These individuals are considerably referred to as the “seasoned workers or matriarchs and patriarchs of the family. Their knowledge and wisdom surpasses that of many and they are able to recall their experiences and apply the knowledge to the task at hand.

Resources

Cantell, R.B. (1943). The measurement of adult intellignence.

Psychological  Bulletin, 40, 153-193.

 

Please READ:Respond to this: with references: What preventive activities or approaches might have been beneficial in mitigating the impact of these cognitive changes? Cite information from articles that address challenges in cognitive functioning and practice. You may find it beneficial to investigate Web sites that provide practice in strengthening cognitive skills.

 

 

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