Chapter 16: Q#1: Looking further into the chapter, theoretical grounds of policy implementation, Buse et al., (2012) argue that policy implementation is the execution of a formulated policy – turning theory into practice.  When turning theory into practice, the authors stated that it was common for certain observations.  What are those observations?  Briefly identify, and provide a brief narrative for each of these observations. 




Chapter 16: Q#2: The authors from this case study research regarding public policy implementation continued to state that, the bottom-up approach was developed from the criticism of the top-down approach that mainly focused on what?  Please identify this focus, and provide a brief narrative to support your answer/response. 






Chapter 16 – Following the chapter reading, the authors assert that the twentieth century is considered as the century of population explosion and fossil fuels burning, environmental policies and the transition to effective use of renewable energy sources as a priority with a strategic focus on specific countries around the world.  In addition, this move has created several different projects whose main focus is to formulate policies associated with climate change and energy governance.  Many of the policies and projects identified aim to support the energy sources switching between fuels like fossils and nuclear power to renewables like solar, wind, and or water.  Specifically, the chapter provides the foundations of policy implementation, and methods as well as investigations of five policy implementation case studies through a comparative analysis. 

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