Template for Assessment of Causality for Reviewing Epidemiological Studies
Causality Criteria Criteria to Evaluate Studies
Main result A. Description of the evidence
What was the exposure or intervention?
What was the outcome?
What was the study design?
What was the study population?
What was the main result?
Chance B. Internal Validity (non-causal factors)
Are the results likely to be affected by observation bias?
Are results likely to be affected by recall bias?
Are the results likely be affected by confounding (list which ones)?
Are the results likely to be affected by chance?
Other population C. External validity–Generalization of results
Can the study results be applied to the eligible population?
Can the study results be applied to the source population?
Can the study results be applied to other relevant populations?