1. According to the ‘doctrine of double effect’, in war it is morally permissible to kill civilians so long as they are not killed intentionally. Critically assess this doctrine.

2. “The crucial defining characteristic of terrorism is that terrorists target civilians deliberately.” Critically assess this definition of terrorism.

3. “There is a clear distinction that can be drawn between combatants (who are legitimate targets of violence in war) and non-combatants (who are not legitimate targets of violence)”. Discuss.

4. “The only just cause for war is self-defence”. Discuss.

5. In “The Necessary Amorality of Foreign Affairs” (p. 73) Arthur Schlesinger argues that “the compulsion to see foreign policy in moral terms may have, with the noblest of intentions, the most ghastly of consequences”. Critically assess this realist claim.

6. One influential strand of pacifism is based on the principle that it is always better to suffer evil than to do evil. Critically assess this strand of pacifism.

7. How good an argument for torture is ‘the ticking bomb’?

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