1. Explain Kohlberg s theory of moral development. What did Carol Gilligan find and why is it a serious problem for the validity of the theory? How do we measure moral development and what are the problems with measurements? Can moral development programs reduce criminality? Discuss the evidence.

2. Define justice. Describe the elements and types of justice for a complete answer. Explain how retributivists and utilitarians justify punsihment. How do they each utilize proportionally in deciding the appropriate amount of punishment? Explain.
3. Describe and define due process. Explain its relation to procedural justice and substantive justice. Discuss the exceptions to the exclusionary rule.
4. What are the two basic justifications for law? Give examples and arguments for each (as well as opposing arguments). What are Feinberg s justifications for law?

5. Describe discretion in law enforcement. Explain how discretion is related to the emergence of ethical issues. In your answer you should utilize the concepts of crime/fighter or public servant and also provide examples of the types of ethical issues that may arise.
6. Discuss the elements of the formal police code and contrast them with the values of the police subculture.

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